RIO meeting 2015

The RIO group
The Research in Imagery and Observation (RIO) Group was formed in 2006 and aims to provide a forum to meet and discuss research in imagery and observation. The purposes of the meetings are to give members a chance to present their research findings and ideas and to facilitate group discussions. The RIO group organizes one meeting a year at different locations across Europe. There is a useful range of expertise within the group and the research carried out by the members varies from applied sport science to cognitive-neuroscience (including for example research within exercise and rehabilitation). Find out more about group and the annual meetings here.

The RIO meeting 2015

Day one
Mary Quinton and Fredrik Weibull from our BRIO group attended the 9th Research in Imagery and Observation (RIO) meeting at the University of Stirling, Scotland on the 14th-15th May 2015.

The first day started with an invited lecture from Professor Ferdinand Binkofski who talked about the implementation of action observation in neurorehabilitation. Any students would be happy to know that this research area suggests naps are beneficial to consolidate learning to remember things better, a tip for upcoming exam revision perhaps?

The theme of rehabilitation then continued into the first symposium – “Imagery and Observation in Clinical Science”. These presentations included research from the Body Eyes and Movement (BEAM) lab at Manchester University who have been investigating different gesture viewpoints during action description and the effects of visual cues on hand movements in Parkinson’s disease.

Ling Choo and colleagues based at the University of Glasgow then presented results from their systematic review on the neural correlates of bilateral upper limb training after stroke. Surprisingly there have been no imagery interventions in this area of research – an invitation for someone reading this blog?

Tadhg MacIntyre’s research group then talked about motor imagery use for injured athletes during recovery and the topic of cognitive dissonance between simulation and execution – a really interesting topic which I’m sure we’ll be hearing more about in the near future. In symposium two (“Imagery and Observation in Sport and Exercise Science”), MacIntyre’s research group spoke about their upcoming research investigating depression through motor simulation and motor imagery performance and injured athletes’ imagery use in recovery using a mixed methods approach. Does this sound interesting to you? Want to hear more? Look out for our interview from the conference with Tadhg MacIntyre (coming soon on the BRIO group blog).

Tadhg MacIntyre

Adam Bruton (University of Roehampton) then presented some of his PhD work on the effect of observation interventions on collective efficacy in elite youth rugby union players. Even though the rugby team didn’t have the best season overall, watching video highlights of their matches at the start of each week helped improve their collective efficacy – it truly is the taking part that counts?

Last but by no means least, BRIO members Mary Quinton and Fredrik Weibull presented their PhD research. Mary discussed how who you are can influence your perception of your imagery experience, as her research shows that skill level influences how an individual interprets their imagery (i.e., as facilitative or debilitative). Whereas Fredrik discussed how exercise imagery mediates the relationship between exercise behaviour and affective outcomes, showing that enjoyment imagery can partially explain why people enjoy their exercise experience and experience positive outcomes from their exercise behaviour, like revitalization.

Fredrik Weibull
In the end of the first day we experienced a fantastic whisky tasting at the venue which included a lot of laughs. This was followed by a lovely dinner.

Day two
Stéphane Grade (University of Louvain) was the first presenter during the symposium of day 2 (“Imagery and Observation in Action Cognition”). He gave an informative talk about exploring action simulation embodied cognition using distance estimation and reachability perception judgment. This was followed by Daniel Eaves (Lancaster University) who presented research by himself and colleagues on “The effects of physical practice on automatic imitation effects in rhythmical actions”.

Bretherton presented work by himself and Watt (University of Sterling) on music, motion and emotion. We listened to a piece of music while Bretherton showed us how music affects Heart Rate (HR). Predictable parts of the music lowered HR while unpredictable parts caused an increase in HR. Bretherton also described why music could be seen as a person in motion.

This was followed by interesting talks from Ellen Poliakoff (University of Manchester) on “Exploring the effects of attention and motor imagery on the kinematics of imitated hand actions” and Clément Letesson (University of Louvain) on “Action prediction from action observation and contextual cues”. Bruce and Ietswaart also presented fascinating work with parrots and how they can learn from observing different human actions.

The conference ended with an invited lecture from Scott Glover who talked about his ideas of a unified model of imagery and about the factors influencing the timing of real and imagined actions. He gave an interesting talk in which among other things he criticized the use of the term functional equivalence. Instead he proposed to use the term functional overlap. He presented a model of the neural and behavior processes of motor imagery and how they relate to the processes of real action. He also presented research that supported some of the tenets of the model.

It was a great conference with its usual mix of researchers from cognitive, clinical and sport science backgrounds. The presentations and meetings stimulated great discussions on both theoretical and practical issues. We want to thank the organizers for a great experience. Next year we the RIO group will celebrate its 10th anniversary. Check the RIO group website for updates.

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You have been using imagery your entire life but you did not even realize it!

By Nurwina Anuar

Have you ever lost your car key? To find them, you might have thought back to the last place and time you held them in your hands, mentally retracing your steps.  Without even realizing it, you were using mental imagery. Following on from Fernanda’s post explaining why imagery is a skill for life, I will explore this theme further by giving you lots more reasons how it can benefit you.

Embed from Getty Images

What is imagery?

Imagery is a mental activity.  Using your mind’s eye, you can recreate experiences you have had before or picture new experiences before they even happen.  In a classic study by Harvard University’s Prof Stephen Kosslyn and his colleagues (1990), they discovered that most spontaneous images experienced in every day life are visual in nature.  However, you may also use your mind’s ear to hear imaged sounds, your mind’s noise to experience imaged smells, and so on for the other senses.  Helping to make the images even more realistic, it is also possible to experience feelings and emotions during imagery.

Although imagery is most often considered to be a technique used by top sports people, it can be applied to almost every type of profession.  For example, imagery is used by writers, dancers, actors, musicians, psychologists, entrepreneurs, and surgeons.  Because most of everyday images are spontaneously created, we probably do not realize how often we use imagery to help us through our daily lives.

By becoming more aware of imagery and optimizing your ability to image, you will be able to use this technique to benefit in many ways.  In Kosslyn et al.’s (1990) study, they found that everyday images were used to:

  1. Solve problems (e.g., decide what to eat)
  2. Rehearse future encounters (e.g., asking your boss for a raise)
  3. Jogging your memory (e.g., putting a face to remember a forgotten name)
  4. Producing descriptions (e.g., giving directions to your house)
  5. Understanding descriptions (e.g., picturing a character in a book)
  6. Emotional/motivational (e.g., imaging a calm lake to relax)

Imagery can also have no particular purpose, such as when we are day dreaming.  However, to benefit most from imagery we need to be aware of inner experiences and focus the mind on what we are creating/recreating.  Like other mental techniques, you can improve your ability to image by practicing it regularly and deliberately.

Still not convinced why you should start to use imagery more often in your life? Here are five more reasons.

1. It is free

Imagery is a tool that does not require a single penny in order to use it. You don’t need an ap or a CD – just the power of your mind.

2. It can be used any time/any place

You can use it at any point of the day (or night!), whether it is first thing in the morning, during a break in work, or just before trying to fall asleep.  You can also use it anywhere you like. For example, athletes have reported using imagery at school, at home, as well as on the training pitch.

3. There is a scientific explanation for its benefits

Dr Aymeric Guillot, a professor at the Centre of Research and Innovation in Sport at University Claude Bernard Lyon in France has explained that experiences in real and imaginary worlds produces similar responses in the central nervous system.   During a “mental workout”, your sympathetic nervous system which governs our fight-or-flight response will react with increases in heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure. He further said, “Whether we walk on a mountain trail or only picture it, we activate many of the same neural networks—paths of interconnected nerve cells that link what your body does to the brain impulses that control it. You can use this to your advantage in different ways.”

4 You get to preview experiences before you take the action.

You don’t just relive old experiences through imagery but also can preview new experiences before they happen.  Why is this helpful? Imaging the situation before you experience for real can give you a sense of having done it before and build your confidence that the actual situation will go well.  Also, this mental rehearsal can help you to gain information on how to handle the situation, giving you the opportunity to try out different scenarios, changing your tactics, and reviewing possible outcomes.  This kind of imaged planning may even save time and money, allowing you to consider creative solutions to problems.

5. Imagery have been used for healing and medicine.

Imagery can help you to reduce pain and promote healing from injury and illness.  Pain can be reduced by using imagery to distract yourself, relaxing your muscles, and holding less tension.  You could image the sensation of getting massage, sitting on warm beach, taking hot bath, the muscles relaxing, or imagining the pain being released from the body.  As for healing, athletes will image image the fractured bone stick back together and other types images. This gives them a sense of control over their rehabilitation and perhaps confidence that it is working. Interested to know more about using imagery for pain and healing? Check out this resource.

In sum, imagery can be used in every day life to achieve many benefits. I would love to hear how you use imagery in your life by leaving a comment below.

About the author: Nurwina Anuar is a final year PhD student at the University of Birmingham.